Osaka City has many private railway networks, including JR.
Train types include local; and according to how many stations each type of trains stops, semi-express, rapid-service, express and limited express. Various discount services are also offered, including tickets common to private railway companies.
Area map (Osaka Convention & Tourism Bureau website)
JR is the largest railway network in Japan. It covers most parts of the country. West Japan Railway Company (JR West) operates lines in Osaka City, such as the Osaka Loop Line and the JR Tozai Line.
JR West Website
Other private railways
Many private railway lines, including the Osaka Metro, Hankyu, Hanshin, Keihan, Kintetsu and Nankai lines, run in Osaka City.
Osaka Metro website
Kintetsu Corporation website
Keihan Electric Railway Co., Ltd. Website
Nankai Electric Railway Co., Ltd. Website
Hankai Tramway Co., Ltd. Website
Hankyu Corporation website
Hanshin Electric Railway Co., Ltd. Website
Vacant taxis display a red light "空車" (kusha, meaning vacant) on the lower right-hand side of the windshield. Vacant taxis running in the city can be hailed by raising your hand from the side of the street. Avoid hailing taxis at intersections.
If there is a taxi stand, line up for a taxi there.
You can call a taxi company to request to be picked up where you want.
Generally, it is not customary to tip drivers.